Saturday, August 24, 2019

Police Corruption Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

Police Corruption - Research Paper Example There is a wide range of police jurisdictions and considerable costs are paid by the society in general as well as the police services as a result of such misconduct. Herman Goldstein defines it as â€Å"acts involving the misuse of authority by a police officer in a manner designed to produce personal gain for himself or others.† It is a larger systematic problem which is due to the lack of overall transparency, no check and balances, weak rule of law and insubstantial institutions. Police Corruption generally occurs at two levels: In the office i.e. behind the scenes or on the streets such as bribery or involvement with criminals. The backroom corruption activities involve irregular practices such as negligence in enforcing internal discipline, stopping of investigations, payments for transfers or appointments and contracting. All these unethical and mischievous acts involve very large transactions and are committed by officers having command authority (mid or senior-level o fficials) and access to the privileged information. Officers avail such opportunities in pairs or alone in the absence of supervisors or any higher authorities. The extent may vary from petty corruption to large scale criminal acts which are endowed by the extra ordinary powers given to the police officials. In the 1980s and 1990s, corruption cases occurred on a very large scale involving and later charging police officers for drug dealings, robberies, batteries and even murders etc. It can be observed that there are two major elements of police corruption namely misuse of authority/power and misuse of personal attainment. At each level, these elements are misused in one way or the other posing a great hindrance in the efficient and effective working of the police department. It can be said that police officials have been a part of encouraging and creating crime rather than deterring it. In this report the causes of police corruption will be discussed and ways such as increased sala ries, training, education incentives, health and insurance benefits and policies that focus on such issues will be identified to eliminate or reduce corruption. Types of Police Corruption: Some major forms of police corruption are discussed below: Gratuity: This refers to the illegal or inappropriate use of power by police officers in order to arrest, coerce, harass, intimidate or assault people. It is a serious crime because the society in general relies on police to safeguard their social security and rights. They are given power to use it for the right purpose and intention but wrongful use of this authority has resulted in many unjust incidents. Police brutality, sexual harassment, illicit use of weapons, fake encounters are the most common ways of misusing the authority. Brutality is a form of physical abuse which occurs when officers want to teach a lesson to any citizen or unnecessary force them for the intended action. Police officers also engage in crimes that has nothing t o do with their professional duty such as insurance of fraudulent activities. It is very difficult to get the accurate statistics of police misconduct and abusive behaviour as they normally don’t release any detailed information on disciplinary issues. Kickbacks: It is a secret payment made to the police officers in the form of contracts or transactions in order to change the course of action and support a wrongdoing/ illegal action. They are considered as fringe benefits of the job by the officers. The

Friday, August 23, 2019

Evaluate Rival Views On the Cultural Implications of Globalization Essay

Evaluate Rival Views On the Cultural Implications of Globalization - Essay Example This paper stresses that globalization has intensified the economic competition among the developed nations of the world and to increase this competitiveness, they have come to adopt policies aimed at influencing other countries to adopt their cultures so that they can be able to find markets for their products. Advertisements promoting the western way of life have come up all over the world, and many educated youths have been influenced by them. Nowadays, it has become a trend for the youth to adopt aspects of the west culture stating that their own cultures are either backward or archaic. This report makes a conclusion that globalization has come to have a profound influence on the cultures of many people in the world, and this influence has been both positive and negative. In certain regions, it can be said to be a blessing to those cultures which it has come to influence, because it has not only enriched these cultures, but it has also ensured that some of their characteristics have been spread all over the world. However, it has also been noted that globalization has led to the erosion and near extinction of some cultures and these have come to be replaced with the dominant western culture, which is the driving force behind globalization. One would even go as far as to suggest that globalization is a force which is inevitably going to destroy other cultures, and if not, it will change these cultures beyond recognition. It is an irresistible force of cultural change which cannot be stopped without the isolation of other cultures from the globalised, western one.

Fashion Retail Management - Personal Statement Essay

Fashion Retail Management - Personal Statement - Essay Example The paper "Fashion Retail Management - Personal Statement" is fashion retail management personal statement. In my teens, I would design my own cloths and oversee the tailoring. Soon after, I realized that I was becoming ‘an advisor’ to my friends and colleagues on matters of fashion. This led to my designing and selling of gowns and participation in the management of a few local fashion shows and events where some of my pieces were displayed. My first job was with Zara, a leading fashion retail outlet.Working in the sales department, I learnt how to interact with customers andhow to position and place stocks. Moreover, I learnt about the management of supply chain. My second job was as an intern at Azadea, a leading fashion retail company operating throughout the Middle East and Africa. I worked in the fashion department, mentored by the Brand Manager. During my internship, there were plans on extending Gymboree into an online virtual store. I attended meetings where I u sed my knowledge on online shopping to participate in decision-making. I also assisted the senior brand manager with the monthly reports and strategic decisions. We also attended meetings for new locations and potential brands possible to acquire under AZADEA, investigating competitors and traffic areas. Currently I am interning for a team that previously worked with the luxury designer Zuhair Murad. This experience has allowed me to gain multi-channel retail knowledge, supervisory skills and to work effectively .

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Colonial Differences from North to South Essay Example for Free

Colonial Differences from North to South Essay During the 1700’s, many colonies began to show their true differences with one another. Although the colonies were settled by English origin only, the regions became two distinct societies within years. Of the colonies, the Chesapeake and the New England region were strongly diverse. The Chesapeake and the New England regions differed in the 1700’s because of religious debates that had occurred, different motives that were placed when going to the New World, and the different economies that had developed within the colonies. First, religious debates became a huge distinguishing factor in the two regions. During the 1700’s, Maryland was considered to be a Catholic Haven in the Chesapeake region. Founded by Lord Baltimore in 1634, Maryland quickly became the rescue place for Catholic-English men and women whom faced execution from Protestant England. Faced with death, the Catholics of Maryland stood behind the Act of Toleration that was passed in 1649. In John Winthrop’s document, â€Å"A model of Christian Charity†, he describes how each man needs to come together for religion. God Almighty in his most holy and wise providence hath so disposed of the condition of mankind†¦ we must knot together in this work as one man. †(Document A). In Maryland’s Act of Toleration, the statute guaranteed all toleration to Christians. With the act, Maryland could be Catholic without a word being said. Unlike Maryland, The New England region had nothing to hide with religion. New England was mainly Puritan, spanning out of Calvinism. Predestination and â€Å"visible saints† were just two of many popular phrases used in the Puritan religion. Puritans believed in being predestined for heaven or hell when a said person was born. Also, Puritans had the decision to be Separatists and Non-Separatists. Many Puritans were Non-Separatists, meaning they wanted to reform the Church of England but not completely break away from it. Along with Non-Separatists, Separatists were also common. Separatists were groups of people that wanted to completely break away from the Church of England. One of the most famous groups of Separatists was the Pilgrims. In the end, the colonies were very different religion and the differences in religion molded America’s freedom of religion. Next, another factor that made the two regions different, were the motives that were placed going to the olonies. In the Chesapeake region, the Virginia Company was immediately put in place when they had arrived in Virginia. The Virginia Company was a joint stock company that had one motive in America; gold. After the defeat of the Spanish Armada, England was craving for outside profit and America was the answer. In John Smith’s document about Virginia, he describes what life was like revolving around gold. â€Å"There was no talk, but dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold. † (Document F). Although the gold process was almost a complete disaster within Jamestown, the colony became the first permanent settlement. But, in the New England region, the English men and women were migrating to the New World for completely different reasons. First, the Separatists of England that were living in Holland to avoid royal English rule, departed to America. The Separatists, later known as Pilgrims, set off on the Mayflower. The original plan was to land off of the coast of Virginia. However, the Mayflower eventually made land fall in the New England region. Living off the land and poor, the Pilgrims became friends with local Native Americans and later, made their own government and set the foundation for the New England colony. After the Massachusetts Bay colony was formed, the main motive of the colony was to build it full of life and families. As quoted in the â€Å"Articles of Agreement†, â€Å"2. We intend that our town shall be composed of forty families, rich and poor. † (Document D). Known as the â€Å"Great Migration†, around twenty thousand Puritans migrated to the New England region from England. John Porter created a large list of Emigrants that were bound for New England. A family decided to migrate and John Porter recorded it: â€Å"1. Joseph Hull, of Somerset, a minister, aged 40 years old. 2. Agnes Hull, his wife, aged 25 years. . Joan Hull, his daughter, aged 15 years old. Etc. † (Document B). Many young families migrated from England to receive freedom of religion and break away from the clutches of royal England. Between gold, religious freedom and the â€Å"Great Migration†, the New England and Chesapeake had many different reasons for migrating to the New World. Lastly, the two regions became two separate worlds when economies began to develop. The Chesapeake region was known for one thing, and that was tobacco. Tobacco was vital to the colony’s economic foundations. A rich man’s crop, tobacco was very labor-demanding. When indentured servants rebelled, African slaves were put to use and the Chesapeake became home to slaves. As well as labor, tobacco sparked plantations and the need for land. When slaves were imported, this became the splitting factor between the north and south. However, New England, with its’ cooler falls and winters, could never plant tobacco, especially with the historic New England â€Å"stony† soil. The â€Å"stony† soil prevented any farmers from successfully planting a lot of plants. New England’s economy thrived on shipbuilding, fishing, commerce and trading. The region also contained dense forests, helping the shipbuilding industry skyrocket. Also, the economy was very organized and everything affected it. In the document of â€Å"Wage and Price Regulations in Connecticut†, they discuss the prices and wages being regulated so that the people of the colony can understand their religious callings. â€Å".. in the interim recommends that all tradesmen and laborers consider the religious end of their callings which is that receiving such moderate profit as may enable them to serve God and their neighbors with their arts and trades comfortably.. †. (Document E). In the New England colony, everything was interconnected, including religion, economy and politics. The Chesapeake’s hot, humid weather enabled the farms to grow tobacco to form their economy. But, New England’s cooler weather enabled their workers to focus on shipbuilding, trading, and even religion. In conclusion, the two regions faced many differences within their cultures when compared. Their religions, motives, and economies were a few of the distinguishing factors. As the colonies prospered in their own individual ways, the differences grew larger and became two different societies.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Internet As An Information Source Information Technology Essay

Internet As An Information Source Information Technology Essay The Internet is a network of networks that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks. Internet is also described as the worldwide publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). Internet is the transport vehicle for the information stored in files or documents on another computer. It carries together various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. The Internet itself does not contain information, it is a slight misstatement to say a document was found on the Internet. It would be more correct to say it was found through or using the Internet. What it was found in (or on) is one of the computers linked to the Internet. Every aspect of our day to day life is affected by the internet. Whether it is shopping, business, banking, communication, paying your bills, social gathering, party, learning, education etc. Internet is everywhere, knocking at our door, making our life easier and smooth. Moreover, when it comes to education and research internet is paving way for a great leap and sure library and information centers has no exception. The internet made the information on our finger tips. The libraries of the developed world has adopted the internet facilities to provide the fast and better library services to its patron but this is not the case with many developing nations and third world countries. The libraries of the third world countries still do not have the basic internet access facilities in many cases because of the poor funding and budget crisis, while we are talking about web 2.0 in countries like United States, Europe and other developed nations. This paper has also tried to explore broadl y the importance of internet with regard to access of information sources and its utilities for library patrons in academic organizations and institutions. Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is a residential academic institution located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Originally it was Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which was founded by a great Muslim social reformer Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in 1875 and in 1920 it was granted a status of Central University by an Act of Indian Parliament. Modelled on the University of Cambridge, it was among the first institutions of higher learning set up during the British Raj. Aligarh Muslim University offers more than 250 courses in traditional and modern branch of education. The University is open to all irrespective of caste, creed, religion or gender. For more information please logon to university website: www.amu.ac.in. Literature Review Pangannaya, N.B. (2000) conducted a study i.e. Use of Internet by the Academic Community: a Case Study. This paper is an attempt to investigate the use of internet resources by the academic community of Mysore University, using survey as the research tool. The paper has investigated the faculty wise frequency and length of use of the internet. Moreover, it describes the emergence of internet, has revolutionized the academic world. Darries, Fatima (2004) has discussed various issues related to internet based reference services under the given title Internet access and use in reference services in higher education institutions in South Africa. An electronic survey was conducted using the web and e-mail to distribute the questionnaire. The target population was the heads of reference services at large libraries and the directors at smaller libraries of the 36 higher education institutions in South Africa. The response rate to the questionnaire was 28 (30.4 %); two returned questionnaires were spoilt. These results showed that all libraries surveyed have Internet access, and all but one provided access to their users. Librarians had access to the Internet for a longer period than their users. User internet training tended to be on a one-to-one basis at the point-of-use. Jay, Margaret and Webber, Sheila (2005) conducted a research study under the title Impact of the internet on delivery of reference services in English public libraries The study aims to investigate the impact of the internet on reference services in public libraries in England. A questionnaire was administered in 2003 to a sample of the public library authorities in England, investigating the use of the internet for receiving or answering reference enquiries, the use of electronic reference sources, and the nature of public library web sites. The paper concludes by identifying the need for public library managers to assess the changing role of professionals and Para-professionals in delivering reference services, and to provide appropriate training. It also notes that despite the discussion of real-time reference, asynchronous digital reference is still more common in England. The above table 4.7 clearly shows the results about the users satisfaction level with internet based information services when compare to print medium. The above table shows that 41 i.e. (45.05%) users are highly satisfied with the internet based information services in comparison to print sources. On the other hand 36 i.e. (39.65%) users have given the average rating to the internet as a source of information access compare to printed sources, while 14 i.e. (15.38%) users are very highly satisfied with internet based information services. The investigators have tried to find out problems pertaining to internet access among the research scholars PG students of the Science faculty in AMU. The investigators find out the major problems and hindrance in this regard shown in the table No. 4.8. The great response in this section is about the slow internet speed. 72 i.e. (47.68%) users complained about the slow internet speed, 28 i.e. (18.54%) users feel that there are lack of sufficient internet connected terminals in the department / library, which hinders them to properly utilize their time at the optimum level. Moreover 19 i.e. (12.58%) users face the problem of too many hits or information overload, 17 i.e. (11.25%) reported about the problem of the missing link / broken link. In addition to that, 12 i.e. (7.94%) users feels that the staff in the computer section of department / library are not technically very sound and therefore needs training and sound technical knowledge. 3 i.e. (1.98%) users complained about the ir relevant retrieval or lack of precision while trying to find out relevant information on the Internet. The investigators clearly find that the most of the research Scholars PG students have the internet access facility in their departments. They also find out that the users from science faculty access the internet on various locations, most of the users are using internet in the departments and in the university central library. They are also browsing the internet in the university computer centre. They are going least to cyber cafes for using internet. The present study also says that the most of the research scholars PG students of the science faculty are exploiting the internet services for their research work. Apart from that they are using internet for keeping themselves abreast with the latest development in the world, for communication purposes, and to search the career development information. Most of the research scholars PG students are using the J-gateway to access the various online journals either from the respective departments, central library browsing section, or fr om the university computer centre. Moreover, the present study states that the print information sources have been affected due to the use of internet based information services in the science faculty and the users satisfaction is quite high vis-Ã  -vis print sources of information. In addition to that, research scholars PG students find Internet based information services easy to use. It is clear from the present study that most of the users utilize the internet for searching the subject oriented information. Apart from that, majority of the users are satisfied with the accuracy of the internet based information sources.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Developing An Inclusive Education System Education Essay

Developing An Inclusive Education System Education Essay For the last few decades, there has been an increase in the number of countries which aimed at making their education systems more inclusive. This aim has been in the agenda of both developed and developing countries with variations in their definitions of inclusion, policy making strategies and school practices. In addition, experiences of these countries in their effort to develop inclusive education systems have faced particular challenges (Ainscow, 2005), with the case being more severe for developing countries where it has been unlikely to observe a significant achievement in their trial to develop inclusive education (Eleweke and Rodda 2002; Mittler 2000). Turkey, as a developing country, has committed to developing inclusion in schools for almost two decades (Eleweke and Rodda 2002; UNESCO 1994). Since then, however, transformation of The Turkish Education System to an inclusive one has been experiencing serious challenges although there have been several positive steps taken towards improving inclusive policy and practice. This review is concerned with the process of Turkey in developing inclusive education while aiming to contribute to the limited literature which critically reviews Turkeys position in this process. After the conduct of search is discussed, the process towards inclusive education will be reviewed under three broad terms: Definition of inclusion as reflected on policy and practice, the transition process from education in special schools to inclusion, and the current barriers against inclusive education. Conduct of Search This literature review is broadly concerned with the field of inclusive education and specifically explores Turkeys position in developing inclusive education. Therefore, the search for this review was started with the scholarship of leading people in the field of inclusive education and was limited to literature about Turkey. The criterion for using the literature was convenience with the purpose of review. In planning this piece of literature review, several types of documents were searched for through some key terms and in some databases and websites. Appendix 1 presents a detailed table of the search terms used, websites and databases searched, the number of documents reached in any year and the number of documents used. Definition of Inclusion Recently, an inclusive education system has been a common goal in the agenda of many countries. However, there have been variations in the way inclusion was defined by these countries (Ainscow et al. 2006a). In many of the definitions, a frequently varying aspect has been the target population identified as subject to inclusion which brought about the question of who is inclusion for? Based on this question, it has been possible to trace policies and practices which have focused on students from the most vulnerable groups to all potential learners (Ainscow et al. 2006a). In 1994, ninety two governments from different parts of the world endorsed that schools would act in a framework which would fully include every learner, no matter what characteristics the student possessed (UNESCO, 1994). These characteristics could be diverse physical, intellectual, social, emotional and linguistic properties. Despite this framework, however, it has been difficult to trace a common understanding and unified practices based on the statement (Ferguson, 2008). For example, while the trend in developed countries, such as the UK and the USA is towards an understanding of inclusion for all learners, many developing countries have based their policies and practices on inclusion of disabled students (Gaad 2010; Slee 2010; Ferguson 2008). Turkey, like many other developing countries, has identified disabled students as the most vulnerable groups in education and adopted an understanding of inclusion which places disabled students in mainstream schools (Gaad 2010; Rakap and Kaczmarek 2009; Turkish Prime Ministry 2008). As the first typology of conceptualization of inclusion by Ainscow et al. (2006b) illustrates, Turkeys definition of inclusion is similar with governments and schools which have based their policies and practices on the inclusion of disabled children. In 1997, the Special Education Regulation (No. 573) which was considered as the first regulation towards inclusive education was enacted. Since then, all regulations and laws in Turkey have referred to inclusion of disabled children into mainstream schools. As for the disability categories identified, the groups subject to inclusion were defined as visual, hearing and health impairments, physical, mental, speech and language, learning and emotional and behavioural disabilities (Turkish Prime Ministry, 2008). In the Special Education Regulation of 1997, as well as other regulations such as The Special Education Services Regulation in 2006, several definitions were made by the ministry which founded the basis for the inclusion of disabled children (Melekoglu et al. 2009). One of the most revolutionary statements was the consideration of special education as part of the regular education. With this in mind, regular education classes were defined as least restrictive environments where education of disabled children should be encouraged. As a result of this, referral of disabled children as well as assignment of special education teachers to regular education schools accelerated in the last ten years (Turkish Ministry of National Education, 2012). Another point emphasized by the regulations was the obligation assigned to mainstream schools to plan and provide educational and support services to disabled children (Melekoglu et al. 2009). Each school was required to prepare and implement an individualized education plan for each child. However, this section which emphasized uniqueness of students was followed by another part in the regulation, which defined special education services to be provided for separate categories of disabled students, rather than emphasizing students with individual and unique needs. This nature of the regulation, therefore, has created education plans which overlooked individual needs and included standard objectives and services for particular disability groups. As a conclusion, analysis of policies in Turkey reveals the reality that inclusion only refers to the placement of disabled children in mainstream schools (Gaad 2010; Turkish Ministry of National Education 2010; Turkish Prime Ministry 2008). Slee (2010) claims that considering inclusion as the integration of only disabled children weakens the inclusive schooling progress in the broader sense. However, although it seems to be a limitation to overlook the need to include other children from vulnerable groups (e.g. learners not necessarily diagnosed with a disability), the process can still be perceived as a step taken to make schools more inclusive by leaving behind the idea of categorizing and placing disabled children in special schools where they were previously seen as others (Gaad, 2010). In addition, the developmental level of the educational systems and the reality of disabled students as one of the most segregated groups in poor and developing countries might lead countries to focus more on inclusive practices for disabled students. In this context, there is a need for more policies, resources and improvement of powerful support systems to go beyond the point of including only the disabled requires. In addition, this process might require more time in countries where inclusive education is still immature (Gaad, 2010). Transition from Education in Special Schools to Inclusion The field of education, in the twentieth century, underwent a substantive trial to legitimize the rationale for special education (Armstrong, 2010) until new legislations and practices started to take an issue with previous special educational theories and practices (Thomas and Loxley 2001). For the last few decades, there has been a cessation in the expansion of special education schools not only in wealthy but also in poor and developing countries as many administrators have started to address inclusion in government policies and school practices (Ainscow et al. 2006a). Turkey, as a developing country, has been in the process of the transition from education in special schools to inclusion since its endorsement of the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994). Until a few years ago, the dominant trend towards education of disabled children was based on segregating them in special schools according to a classification based on their disabilities and providing them with special educational services. However, the Ministry of National Education has started to emphasize and support the education of disabled children with their peers in regular schools. For a decade, the emphasis and support for inclusion has constantly been told to schools and parents in order to include them into a system where the inclusive education and its fundamental principles are adopted and supported (Melekoglu et al. 2009). In Turkey, reflections of the changing attitude towards inclusive education have been observable on the policy of the Ministry of National Education. For example, the 37th article of The Special Education Services Regulation (2006, p.3) states that The Ministry of National Education is responsible for opening special schools for disabled students. However, the priority should be given to the mainstream education of disabled students together with their normally developing peers in regular schools. This statement obviously underlines the changing attitude of the government favouring inclusion on policy documents. There were two other signs of the changing perspective of the Ministry towards a more inclusive system. First, The Special Education Services Regulation (2006) included a part which explained the inclusion process to schools in detail. The other sign was the book published by the Ministry and gave detailed information about inclusion to attract attention of the stakeholders; namely parents, teachers and administrators (Turkish Ministry of National Education, 2010). Official statistics by the Ministry show that the number of disabled students in mainstream schools has significantly increased for the last ten years (Turkish Ministry of National Education, 2012). This increase in quantity is significant compared to the number a few years ago (see Figure 1). Despite this, almost half of the disabled children are still placed in either special education schools or special education classrooms within mainstream schools (Turkish Ministry of National Education, 2012). Furthermore, the first alternative for placement of students with some type of disabilities, such as visual and hearing impairments, is the special education school, usually due to the lack of related staff in inclusive schools. Such a situation creates an unconscious preference for the inclusion of some type of disabilities, such as mental retardation, and ignorance of other disability groups. Figure 1. Number of disabled students in mainstream classrooms between the years 2000-2012 (Source: Turkish Ministry of National Education, 2012). Another point worth inquiry is the level in which inclusion of disabled students is taking place. In Turkey, there are three levels for inclusion among which there is a dramatic difference in terms of the number of disabled students (see Table 1). According to recent statistics by the Ministry (2011), increase at primary level is promising whereas inclusion of disabled students at preschool and high school levels is still not satisfactory with respect to quantity. One of the reasons for this situation was the compulsory educational period which was 8 years and did not include the preschool and high school periods. However, the most recent legislation by The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (2012) increased the compulsory education period in a way that it will include the preschool (3 to 5.5 years of age) and high school. This is expected to decrease the dropout rate of the disabled students and increase the number of disabled students in pre and high schools. Educational Level Number of Classrooms Number of Students Preschool (3 to six 6 years age) 288 588 Primary (Grades 1 to 8) 40810 84637 High School (Grades 9 to 12) 4573 7775 Total 45671 93000 Table 1. Number of disabled students in mainstream classrooms according to educational levels in 2011 (Source: Turkish Ministry of National Education, 2011). To conclude, reflections of the transition to inclusive education in Turkey have been somewhat observable on the policy level. However, promising advances at the policy level have rarely been accompanied by satisfactory implementation (Rakap and Kaczmarek 2010) in schools. Research findings have been consistently showing that there have been problems experienced in areas such as service provision, curriculum, inclusive school community and staff quantity and competency. These problems are discussed in the following chapter. Barriers against Inclusion in Turkey The reality of inclusive education has been dominating the world, with many countries aiming to develop their systems to a more inclusive structure and implement more inclusive practices in schools (Lindsay, 2007). However, this reality is not without its challenges and responsibilities both for developed and developing countries (Ainscow, 2005) with the problems being more serious for the latter (Mittler, 2000). In Turkey, like many other developing countries, challenges and responsibilities have been constantly experienced during the trial to foster inclusion in schools. In this trial, three barriers have been identified and discussed in this chapter. These are negative attitudes towards inclusive education, problems experienced in planning and providing support services and lack of human resources (Kuyumcu 2011; Polat 2010; Rakap and Kaczmarek 2010). Negative Attitudes For a few decades, research findings have shown that inclusive education produces positive results not only for disabled students who are placed in inclusive settings but also for their peers without disabilities (Lindsay 2007; Balderrama 1997; Staub and Peck 1994). However, a considerable amount of this research also underlines that it is unlikely for educational systems to improve their inclusiveness unless there are positive attitudes in professionals in schools (Polat 2010; Antonak and Larrivee 1995). Because professionals assume a crucial role in providing educational services both for disabled and non-disabled students. In a school, a welcoming inclusive climate in which professionals have positive attitudes towards diversity and inclusion is necessary (Booth and Ainscow 2002). In Turkish schools, findings of research have shown that school professionals do not have sufficiently positive attitudes towards inclusion of disables students. For example, Rakap and Kaczmarek (2010) investigated attitudes of general education teachers who work in public elementary schools in Turkey and found significant negative attitudes held by them. Similarly, school counsellors in Turkey, according to Polat (2010), have not still had stable positive attitudes towards the inclusion of disabled students. Such research findings show that the current stance of Turkish schools in terms of positive inclusive attitudes has not created a satisfactory impression. Insufficient Support Services and Non-Inclusive Curriculum The literature on inclusive education in Turkey displays the difficulties experienced by students, teachers, parents and administrators. According to the Educational Reform Initiative in Turkey (2011), a basic problem underlying these difficulties is the lack of inclusive curricula and support services for disabled students. In an environment where the number of disabled students entering inclusive settings is constantly increasing, schools have rarely been able to accommodate this increase in terms of their existing curricula. It is expected from a school to arrange a curriculum in which individual needs of disabled students are represented and met. However, the strictly centralized and standard nature of the curriculum in Turkey has made it difficult to represent the needs of disabled students within the content of the curriculum (Sucuoglu and Kargin 2008). In the Turkish Education System, the policy expects that an individual education plan (IEP) must be planned and implemented for each disabled child who is placed in a mainstream school (Turkish Ministry of National Education, 1997). In addition, support services (e.g. counselling, speech therapy etc.) should direct student needs. However, studies show a contrary situation with these expectations. For example, a recent study has shown that the process of service planning was carried out in only 37 % percent of the inclusive primary schools and only five per cent of the schools had an IEP team (Kuyumcu, 2011). In another study conducted by the Educational Reform Initiative (2011), 23 percent of the teachers reported that they did not prepare an IEP for the disabled students in their classes whereas only 44 percent of the parents stated that an IEP was implemented for their disabled children. As a result, it is likely to observe students and parents who perceive education as obsolete an d to find disabled students who dropout mainstream schools after a while. Lack of Human Resources Among the success factors of inclusive practice, sufficient human resource in terms of quantity and quality is an important element. According to a recent study (Educational Reform Initiative, 2011); the progress made by Turkish Educational System in terms of human resources in inclusive education is not satisfactory. To improve progress, it is inevitable to employ more professionals, such as general education teachers, special education teachers and school counsellors, who can contribute to the implementation of inclusive practice in schools (Sucuoglu and Kargin 2008). For example, it can be seen that the average numbers of students in primary and high schools served by a counsellor are 1225 and 554, respectively (Turkish Ministry of National Education, 2012). As far as such statistics are taken into account, lack of professional staff might be considered as an important problem. Teachers play a key role in inclusion because they are the organisers of individual needs and providers of educational and support services. Therefore, difficulties experienced by teachers within classrooms exacerbate the success of inclusive practices (Sucuoglu, 2004). For example, a problem reported by teachers is the difficulty in classroom management. In Turkish mainstream schools, only one general education teacher serves all students within one classroom and it might get more difficult to manage when disabled students are placed in this class because it is reported that (Educational Reform Initiative, 2011) student teachers at university do not receive appropriate training to such conditions. In an inclusive education system in which all students are full members of a school, each student is assessed with respect to his or her individual performance. However, teachers in Turkish schools have reported that they have difficulties in measuring and evaluating success of disabled students in their classrooms (Sucuoglu, 2004). As far as unrealistic objective writing and performance determination are taken into account, it might get more difficult for teachers to assess performance against unrealistic criteria. Conclusion Inclusive education is a process which includes several variables and stakeholders (Idol, 2006) which constantly influence the inclusive education process because each of them carries out a critical role in shaping the success of inclusion. Therefore, decreasing the gap between the inclusive policy and its implementation, as well as enhancing the progress made by schools in their inclusive practice, requires a holistic perspective towards inclusion and its elements (Educational Reform Initiative, 2011). Especially in developing countries which are at the beginning of their inclusion journey, setting inclusive systems is possible by focusing on each element of the system and their interrelations. As an important element of an education system, attitudes of school staff towards inclusion are of crucial importance for creating an inclusive environment at school. It is known that these attitudes towards inclusive education and inclusion of disabled children might positively change when stakeholders receive training at any level of their professional life (Sucuoglu, 2004) because professionals who feel incompetent about their skills in terms of working in an inclusive setting might be reluctant in working with disabled students (Aydin and Sahin 2002). Finally, the need for a variation in the provision of support services and an inclusive curriculum in mainstream schools of Turkey is high because more students with diverse backgrounds are entering mainstream schools with individual needs and diverse backgrounds. Both in the classroom and outside, students require support, specific to their individual needs. In providing this support, cooperation with families and consultation with colleagues and other professionals is known to contribute to the development of more inclusive schools (Booth and Ainscow 2002). As for the curriculum, the progress made on the policy level might be extended to the development of more inclusive curricula by The Ministry which develops centralized curricula and has schools follow them. Reflections Carrying out this literature review has made me face two realities. The first one was the range of necessary skills which must be recruited during the process. Acquiring these skills entails advanced academic training as well as engagement in permanent reading and writing which are challenging. The second reality was the influence of the review process on my assumptions and learning. As it requires permanent reading, some of the assumptions which I had before starting, needed either revision or complete change. As a result of this, I encountered new knowledge, new authors, new books and new styles of writing. Combined with the tips I gained during the course training, the process contributed to my confidence in critically analyzing a piece of writing and developing an argument about it. Word count excluding the figure and table: 3296

Monday, August 19, 2019

The Perfect Age :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

The Perfect Age Many of us can't wait to be the perfect age; but what exactly is that age? Is it the age when we will finally find the right one and get married, or when we can legally drink alcohol, or is it when we are settled with families of our own later in life? For every individual, it is a different age and a different dream waiting to be fulfilled. However, once this age finally arrives, it quickly disappears and we revert back to being unhappy. Have you ever noticed how when you are young, you cannot wait to be old, but once you are old, you yearn to be young again? Why are we never fully content with the "now" in our lives? I remember when I was younger playing with my older cousin. It was in the late eighties, which meant the Madonna craze was in full force. She and I would dress up in our parents clothes and pretend to be twenty-something-year-old Madonna. Similarly, my brother used to dress in my dad's suits and pretend to be a businessman going to an important meeting. At such young ages we could not wait to be older, like our parents. Another common childhood game is "house." Girls must remember having a fight with other girls as to who will be the father. No girly girl wanted to be the guy. They want to be the mommy and wife, pretending to cook and take care of the kids. At such a young age, kids look up to their parents and desire to imitate them. This is a classic example of not being happy with the "now." Yet another stage in life where kids want to be older is in the middle school age. Many people hate middle school because it's such a difficult time. People are maturing and trying to figure out who they really are, while in the meantime they make some dumb friendships and some good ones. I know at my school, during seventh and eighth grade is when a lot of kids try cigarettes, drinking, and other drugs. Smoking cigarettes is legal at eighteen, and drinking at twenty-one. Drugs are not legal at any age, but supposedly it is something that an older person would try.