Saturday, February 8, 2020

Impacts of black codes,Jim Crow Laws and segregation on african Essay

Impacts of black codes,Jim Crow Laws and segregation on african americans in the United States - Essay Example Racism was so much deep rooted in an American’s heart that the enactments of anti-slavery laws and the relevant amendments in the US Constitution were merely to redirect a racial mind to find alternatives of white superiority over the Black. Indeed the amended Constitution provided the legal safeguard to the Black, barring the practice of slavery at the state level as well as, to the extent the state could interfere into the public affairs. But it could do nothing to bring about the changes in the culture and the society that intrinsically nourished the racial hostility against their former slaves. Forced by the Constitution and laws, the Americans, especially the Southern States could not but embrace their former slaves, always whispering into their ears, â€Å"You are a black and you must feel it† (Haws 34). This act of reminding the Black that they were inferior to the White and subjects to the White Grace was being done perfectly by Black Codes, Segregation and the Jim Crow Laws. The â€Å"separate but equal† policy in the South is emblematic of the Whites’ failure to assimilate the minor black community into the mainstream of the society. Reconstruction: the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments The racial Segregation and the Jim Crow laws, in a single phrase the â€Å"separate policy† of the south was essentially the South’s reaction to the 13th, 14th and the 15th constitutional Amendments during the Reconstruction in the post Civil War Period. Reconstruction’s primary goals were to establish the Black rights by withering out Slavery and to reintegrate the South with the nation. But the Southerners took it as a Northern insult aggravating the injury of the Civil War. The Reconstruction started with President Lincoln’s affirmative actions for a race-blind, equal and reunited America. While Lincoln followed a more moderate course to establish black people’s right and to reunite the South, the Radical R epublicans â€Å"opposed it on the ground that Lincoln reconstruction plan had freed the slaves without paying much attention to establishing their socio-political, economic and other rights† (Stampp 78). What the North feared the most was that the Government should play a more active role in introducing the people of races to the newly imposed freedom through educational, economic and other sector developments. As a result, by passing the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864 Republican dominated Congress declare that Southern States should be run by military governors and, Secession and Slavery would be outlawed with the consent of the fifty percent of a state’s voters. Eventually the Congress also passed â€Å"the 13th Amendment and established the Freedmen’s Bureau in order to provide the formers slaves and black communities with the opportunities of education, employment, medical service, and economic facilities† (Carter 67). With the reelection of the Democrats i n 1968, the Oval Office under Johnson’s Presidency followed the same path that Lincoln started immediately after the Civil War. But President Johnson’s lack of foresight and wholeheartedness severely affected Reconstruction. Eventually, the Congress voted for the 14th Amendment of the US constitution to provide legal safeguard to Black people’s civil right in 1866 and the 15th Amendment to protect the black’s right to vote in 1870. But along the passage of time, the reconstruction zeal began to wane. Indeed the different political scandal, corruption of the reconstructed governments, economic aftermaths, etc aggravated the waning of Reconstruction. The South’s Response to the 13th Amendment: Black Codes To the North’s surprise, the South began to impose unofficial and legislative restrictions on the black’s rights. Both theoretically and legally by the 13th Amendment of the

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Threats ISIS poses on the US Essay Example for Free

Threats ISIS poses on the US Essay They arent just threatening they are also following through have killed multiple americans Are known to be even more extreme than al qaeda   if isis isnt killed and destroyed it will only recruit more and become stronger Isis could attack in revenge if U.S does anything We still have not detected direct potting towards the U.S. ISIS hasn’t made a direct threat towards the U.S. other than the brutal murders. The ground troops should not come from the U. S but ground troops are necessary. The ground troops should come from the places that are the most threatened by ISIS. We have no threat yet. Hello, this is a letter concerning troops being put into Iraq and Syria to fight ISIS. We have proven to ourselves in the past that this is not an easy job. We will not be able to go in there and wipe the terrorists out with ease. For instance, during the war on Al Qaeda we sent over 806 billion dollars and have had troops deployed for 12 years. We didn’t plan on being in Iraq and Afghanistan for that many years but the Taliban weren’t easy to take down. ISIS has proven to be even more organized, powerful, and more secretive than the Taliban and Al Qaeda. They have taken over large parts of Iraq and Syria in a matter of months and have spread into other countries. It will be a large expense to put ground troops into both countries and maybe more if they spread. We will also waste a lot more money if we send ground troops in. Continuing airstrikes would be more reasonably cost wise and would decrease the loss in life. In the 12 years we fought the Taliban we lost 6,639 troops, mostly ground troops. If we go into Iraq and Syria with ground troops like we did with the Taliban we will lose more troops than necessary. There have only been 2 Americans killed so far and sending ground troops in will only cause more deaths than need to happen. As long as we protect our borders without deploying ground troops we will be safe here.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Essay on The Awakening and A Dolls House -- comparison compare contra

Comparison of  The Awakening and A Doll's House        Ã‚   The Awakening, a novel by Kate Chopin, and A Doll's House, a play by Henrik Ibsen, are two works of literature that can be readily compared. Both works take place in the same time period, around the late 1800s. Both works feature a woman protagonist who is seeking a better understanding of herself. Both Edna and Nora, the main characters, display traits of feminism. Both Edna and Nora have an awakening in which she realizes that she has not been living up to her full potential. Awakening and growth is one of the main themes in both of the works. Throughout the works, each woman has a close female confidante who symbolizes the traditional role of women and society's views of that role.    Edna Pontellier is the 28-year-old protagonist in Kate Chopin's novel, The Awakening. The novel takes the reader through nine months of Edna Pontellier's life during which she is struggling between society's expectations of a woman's behavior and her own passions and desires. The story takes place on Grand Isle, an island near New Orleans, as well as in the city of New Orleans.    One summer Edna, her husband, Leonce, and their two children vacation on Grand Isle. During the vacation, Edna meets many people, one of whom is Adele Ratignolle, a woman who becomes her confidante. Adele embodies all the characteristics of nineteenth century society. She stays at home with her several children, is expecting another, and is a devoted wife. Another important person she meets is Robert Lebrun, the flirt of Grand Isle, who awakens Edna's sensual side. Edna and Robert fall in love. When Robert realizes his affections, he decides that he cannot stay in Grand Isle, so he goes to Mexico.... ...ndercurrents, female companions, and strong ideas about feminism. The works were written in the late 19th century when these topics were shocking and controversial to society.    Works Cited Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1985. Clurman, Harold. 1977. Ibsen. New York: Macmillan. Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll House (1879). Trans. Rolf Fjelde. Rpt. in Michael Meyer, ed. The Bedford Introduction to Literature. 5th edition. Boston & New York: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 1999. Martin, Wendy, ed. "Introduction." New Essays on The (Awakening. New York, NY: Cambridge UP, 1988. Rogers, Katharine M. Feminism in Europe. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1982. Templeton, Joan. "Is A Doll House a Feminist Text?" (1989). Rpt. In Meyer.   

Monday, January 13, 2020

Policy Development Essay

Domestic violence can be described as any form of deliberate coercion, bodily harm, sexual assault, or any other form of violent behavior committed by an intimate partner. Domestic violence has plagued all walks of life despite the age, race, religion, or background. Violence against an intimate partner is frequently followed by psychological abuse and controlling behavior relating to the methodical blueprint of power and control. Domestic violence comes in many forms but not always seen by the naked eye. Domestic violence constitutes forms of physical abuse, psychological abuse or even death that can be seen by other family members possibly causing a continuous cycle of abuse for generations to come. Facts and Statistics It is hard to grasp the notion that somewhere in the world every nine seconds a woman is being beaten or assaulted. On average, 85% of victims of domestic violence are women and 1 in every three women will endure some form of domestic violence in their natural life. Sadly enough only one fourth of all victims who have been physically assaulted by an intimate partner will actually report it to the police, implying that official statistics will never justify the full scope of the problem. The average age of a female victim who is at the greatest risk of harm by an intimate partner is between 20 to 24 years old. Domestic violence is the primary source of harm to a woman over all other possible harmful circumstances she will encounter. As if domestic violence isn’t already difficult enough for women to endure in an intimate relationship, if she has a male child who witnesses these assaults he is now two times more likely to abuse his partner or children as an adult passing along the cycle of abuse for our future. Statistics have shown that 30% to 60% of intimate partners who assault also assault their children. Intimate partner homicides that are reported to police make up  approximately one third of female homicide victims and 70% to 80% of those victims had a previous assault history. A very small amount of victims actually seek medical treatment after an assault but yet a vastly larger number of approximately 18.5 million victims seek mental health treatment following an assault. Separation isn’t always the ultimate solution to the problem. Over 70% of women who were injured during a domestic violence assault were assaulted after the separation (Safehorizon,  2014). Stakeholders Law Enforcement Often time’s victimization in cases of domestic violence is conducted behind closed doors causing law enforcement to become the first line of defense for victims of domestic violence. If the response of the police is extremely insufficient it has a negative impact on the victim making them less likely to use the criminal justice system in the future. There are typically three types of police responses to domestic violence: non-intervention, mediation, and arrest. The initial typical police response to domestic violence was the non-intervention way as police felt that domestic violence was a private matter best kept at home. The second approach is mediation which promotes crisis intervention including separating both parties, reconciliation, or social services referral. This method was designed to keep domestic violence out of the criminal justice system however, it proved to be ineffective. Now a more practiced policy to domestic violence is the arrest of an offender as a pres umed or mandatory response. Domestic violence cases are different in the sense that the offender can be taken into custody under a warrantless arrest as these types of misdemeanors do not have to occur in the officer’s presence. Legal changes have been made where officers now arrest the primary aggressor instead of the old dual arrest practices affecting the victim more than the offender. It has been shown that an officer is more often than not the victim’s last resort to alleviate the problem as they typically chose other routes as to not affect their livelihood. In all domestic violence situations officers shall make an arrest when an offense of violence has been presented, treat these acts of domestic violence as criminal, never disregard protection against domestic violence based upon race, religion, sexual orientation, immediately report  all cases of family violence, and receive training on domestic violence required by law (Erez,  2002). Due to the fact that domestic violence affects a large number of people, it is plausible to say that leaving the abuser is not as easy as people may think which would ultimately stop the abuse. Since this is true, law enforcement must approach domestic violence as serious as they approach any other significant crime by providing time, resources and attention. Given that law enforcement is spending a ton of time focusing on domestic violence, it is important for these agencies to establish a domestic violence policy that indicates reports will be completed on each domestic violence call regardless of whether or not an arrest was made. The most significant and respected service a law enforcement officer can provide to a victim is an arrest of their abuser (Klein,  2009). Prosecutors Prosecutors play a very important role in the prosecution of abusers within the criminal justice system in hopes of providing harsh judgments preventing reoffending and better protection of victims. If prosecutors fail to prosecute the bulk of domestic violence cases conducted by law enforcement an internal examination into their practices, policies, and priorities should be conducted providing an explanation as to why fewer prosecutions are being processed. They should not allow victims who are unwilling to prosecute their abuser stop them from proceeding on with the case. If a vast number of victims are willing to sign an affidavit of non prosecution, it is certain that prosecutors and law enforcement must come up with a better a way for victims to trust them so more cases are prosecuted. For prosecutors to gain a more successful prosecution rate, they must enhance victim cooperation and involvement by concentrating on the victim’s fears of being abused again or testifying i n court without fear of retaliation. In the event that a defendant possesses serious risk to the victim during trial, prosecutors must take all measures to protect the victim to effectively prosecute the case. It has been insisted upon by the judge that prosecutors report to the court any defendant’s negative actions such as reoffending, threatening or intimidating the victim so that potentially other charges can be added while the original case is still pending. While still being compassionate towards the victim, prosecution must base it case  on the law and penalties of the law versus the individual preferences of the victim as they tend to become more lenient during the course of the trial fearing retaliation in the future. Prosecution must also notify the defendant of this process so they don’t believe this is based upon the victim’s requests. Prosecutors must work hand in hand with law enforcement to obtain all the evidence associated with the case as well as identify and include all witnesses involved. Domestic violence can be deterred if prosecution sufficiently concentrates on the abuser risk by inflicting harsh sentences such as supervised probation and incarceration while revealing the defendants prior criminal and abuse history in hopes to prevent reoffending (Klein,  2009). The ideals that lawmakers had on prosecution or adjudication for domestic violence is consequently not being enforced. Legal representatives may become doubtful about the irregularity of violent behavior, or disbelieve the seriousness of the complainants, can either enforce the law firmly for prosecution purposes, or at the same time be understanding of the physical aggression that could be considered efficient punishment for the victim’s marital infidelity. Legal representatives are prone to characterize domestic violence as a civil matter for a ruling in divorce courts versus criminal courts. The prosecution and adjudication phases are substantial for offenders ultimately deciding their guilt or innocence, establishing a criminal record and providing a punishment. These phases are significant for the victim as well as they begin to trust the criminal justice system again (Erez,  2002). Judges Judges can ultimately be the final step in the adjudication process of domestic violence abusers so their role is extremely crucial in the protection of the victim. Merely handing down a guilty verdict does not guarantee reoffending of the abuser so judges should concentrate more on invasive sentences that include incarceration especially for those who are repeat offenders and those with an extensive criminal history. Even though judges should be open-minded when it comes to the views of the victims regarding punishment, he must enlighten all parties involved that he is compelled to hand out the most appropriate sentence pertaining to this case regardless of whether or not the victim agrees. Regardless whether the  defendant turns himself into the court for a domestic violence case, he should be treated as seriously as the offender arrested on scene as it has been shown that the typical offender flees the scene of the incident prior to officer’s arrival where a warrant is la ter issued for their arrest. Judges should hand down sentences that reflect the offender’s prior criminal history as those are signs of possible reoffending regardless if it reflects prior domestic violence offenses. In the event a defendant offends while pending another court case for domestic violence, judges may take that into account for purposes of bail, civil orders, and sentencing. Affidavits filled out by the victim don’t fully describe the abuse suffered by the victim or the fear of future abuse as this document is solely based upon the incident at hand. It is extremely valuable for the judge to further investigate this case by asking the victim more questions as well as examining the prior arrest history of the offender to have a better grasp on the whole picture relating to the abuse. Judges may issue protective orders to the victim but unfortunately this is only a strong piece of paper and it does not prevent abusers from reoffending. Judges should make every effort to house a user friendly courtroom, safe environment for all parties involved, be compassionate to the victims, and yet stern with defendants once some sort of abuse has been brought forward. When judges are able to represent the courtroom in this manner victims concerns are validated and the defendant’s behavior is shown to be unacceptable (Klein,  2009). Public Opinion Most people are in agreement that someone should step in when an abusive domestic violence situation arises, but they don’t agree on what their involvement should be, or the responsibility of the victim to reduce the violence by removing themselves from the abusive relationship. Even though people have the same opinion about domestic violence being a criminal act, they are not essentially on the same page that police should regularly arrest the offender or use other corrective authority versus using other alternatives. This apparent apprehension may be the outcome of people’s uncertainty concerning the applications of criminal sanctions. One theory is they believe offenders warrant the penalty of arrest or jail, yet another theory is they are often practical about the efficiency of the punishment  actually putting a stop to the aggressive actions or the probability the penalty will ultimately protect the victim. A more promising effect is possibly that of rehabilitation and victim or community focused changes. Nonetheless, such changes like offender treatments, education, and victims ultimately leaving the relationship continue to be a rare result (Carlson,  2002). Reform Recent reform within the prosecution and adjudication process of domestic violence includes the issuance of protective order as well as special legal defenses for battered women who have killed their abuser. At one time civil protection orders were only obtainable through a pending divorce, recently they have been pushed through legislation for battered women who are not currently involved in a divorce proceeding. The main objective of domestic violence reform has been aimed at the prosecution process as it has been found that too many cases, misdemeanors, were falling out of the criminal justice process during different stages. Through the years, domestic violence has become one of the most talked about policies and is in constant reform as ideals are continuously changing. Historically very little action by the police and prosecutors has been done regarding domestic violence and without a more serious offense, prior record of offender, possible weapon use, injuries, or physical evi dence most cases won’t see the inside of a courtroom. The most effective way to present a domestic violence case before the court is to have the victim’s cooperation but yet most prosecutors predict that victims will sign an affidavit of non prosecution ultimately dismissing the case altogether typically causing prosecutors to hesitate before filling a case. Prosecution efforts should be based upon the victim’s safety not the conviction of the offender. It should also be an approach to getting the word out to the offender that the abuse is unacceptable and will not be tolerated. Prosecutors have recently found a way to prosecute domestic violence offenses even when the complainant does not want to pursue charges. They have implemented victim advocacy programs within the prosecutor’s office in hopes to boost victim retention within the process. Another approach is the evidence based prosecution, which is the idea of gathering all significant evidence to build a case against an  offender without the victim. Many peo ple believe these practices take away from the victim’s freedoms of determining their course of action (Erez,  2002). Another reform is that of the battered woman syndrome which has been employed in hopes of fixing past practices of disregarding the difficulty battered women face when she wants to defend herself in court, or the necessity to apply principals of law, or self defense that were not particularly appropriate for issues relating to abuse. This tactic has been used as a legal defense for women who battered or killed their abuser after they have suffered many years of abuse and responded by causing harm or death to them. Often times these cases are from battered women who harm their abuser without first being irritated due to the psychological state of mind the victim has suffered for many years (Erez,  2002). Domestic violence has plagued all walks of life despite the age, race, religion, or background. Without the constant fight by all stakeholders within the criminal justice system for the victims of domestic violence, no real solution to the problem can come of this resolve. Constant and continuous reform is necessary to maintain the safety and security of all victims preserving their trust with the criminal justice system.  

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Smoke Ring Cannon for Air or Water Instructions

You can make a smoke ring cannon that shoots smoke rings in the air or even in water. A smoke ring cannon is a simple science project that uses easy-to-find household materials to illustrate fluid vortex formation in a fun way. What Is a Smoke Ring Cannon? This is a tube that you fill with smoke that has a hole at one end. You squeeze the tube and the smoke escapes through the hole as a smoke ring. This works great with smoke bombs, but you can make smoke rings in fluids besides air. Try filling the smoke cannon with colored water (use tub tints, food coloring, or paint), fill a tub or sink with water, and make smoke rings in the water. Smoke Cannon Materials Potato Chip Tube (I used a plastic one, but the cardboard ones work fine.)Knife or ScissorsSource of Smoke Make and Use the Smoke Cannon Eat the chips.Cut a hole in the center of the bottom of the potato chip tube (mine is about an inch across).Remove the lid of the tube.Covering the hole with your hand or lid, invert the smoke cannon over a source of smoke until it is full of smoke.Seal the tube with the lid.To make a smoke ring, gently squeeze the tube. You can make a super-sized smoke cannon by using a much larger cylinder, such as a bucket or trash can. Cover the open end of the trash can or bucket with heavy plastic sheeting, which you can secure with tape or a bungee cord. Thump the plastic surface to form the smoke rings. Disclaimer: Please be advised that the content provided by our website is for EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. Fireworks and the chemicals contained within them are dangerous and should always be handled with care and used with common sense. By using this website you acknowledge that ThoughtCo., its parent About, Inc. (a/k/a Dotdash), and IAC/InterActive Corp. shall have no liability for any damages, injuries, or other legal matters caused by your use of fireworks or the knowledge or application of the information on this website. The providers of this content specifically do not condone using fireworks for disruptive, unsafe, illegal, or destructive purposes. You are responsible for following all applicable laws before using or applying the information provided on this website.

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Research Paper on the Future of Wireless Data Communications

Research Paper on the Future of Wireless Data Communications By any measure, wireless communications are one of the fastest growing sectors of wireless technologies. A summary of what I consider five (5) key points covered in the article includes the following: The Need for Software Radios and programmable radio chipsets First, there is the need to find the right combination of hardware that can be programmed to provide support to high-performance signals for radios. It is projected that in the next 10 years from now, software radios would be the standard technologies in many commercial and military communication devices (Partridge 2011: 63). The software radios can be programmed to limit their usability to specific functions changeable from the real software that controls the radios. Programmable radio chipsets can also be incorporated with WiFi products. Realizing this objective is not difficult but rather it requires a paradigm shift from hardware to software technologies given that software radios had been envisioned by the military for the past two decades. From the examination of the transformation of radio technologies from hardware to software, the size of wireless radios has been reducing at an increasing rate. Equally, the cost of these wireless radios has been reducing significantly (Partr idge 2011: 63). So far, available software radios include Wireless Network after Next (WNAN), Microsoft Research Software (Sora0, and Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP). Simply put, realizing the future with wireless communications is determined with the shift from hardware to software-controlled radios and thus, resources must be channeled into the design of the right programs and radio chipsets to run software radios (Porcino, and Hirt, 2003). Understanding the World of Software Radios Another fundamental thing that the communication industry should be prepared for is the need to understand the world of software radios. There is the need to differentiate software radios from other typical radio technologies that are currently available in the market. The most fundamental elements of software radios entail understanding the processing power of software radios and the ratio of available bandwidth. The processing power of software radios is usually expressed in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), which will determine the wireless performance power of the wireless communication device (Partridge 2011:64). Similarly, the available bandwidth will determine the speed with which the wireless communication device performs. One advantageous thing about wireless communication devices is that it will search for unused wireless frequencies if more bandwidth is required in applications (Partridge 2011:64). Therefore, the realization of a world of wireless communications calls for the implementation of the right technical and regulatory innovations, and a thorough understanding of how software radios work. The right type of Software Radios Understanding the importance and usage of software radios is only but part of the solution. The goal is yet to be realized and therefore, a criterion has to be found that will aid the manufacture and development of the right types of software radios. The process should begin with the collection and mixture of programmable components to be embedded in a processor. The main objective would be to develop the radios with the most powerful processing power (Partridge 2011:64). Correspondingly, configuration of software chips or chipsets with software radios should be done to facilitate coding, media-access, and frequencies. Extensive research needs to be undertaken in this area to ensure that only the best software radios and chipsets are developed. Important considerations should be allocated into developing software radios with acceptable characteristics and behavior such as high performance, low energy consumption, and one with the right processor and chipsets (Partridge 2011:64). Realization of the World of Software Radios Other than the development, understanding, and manufacture of software radios, the securities associated with the realization and exploitation of a world of software radios needs to be addressed. Of great concern is the need exploit the need to approve the usage of spectrums and their accompanying regulatory concerns. First, it is imperative that all details regarding radio behavior be examined, both practically and theoretically. Second, research needs to be undertaken to provide insights in the usage of particular radio spectrums in certain regions, and as well, to determine the current situation. Third, informed decisions should be made based on the analysis, evaluation, and research findings in order to prepare the communication industry for a bright future with respect to the use of wireless communication. Additionally, it should also enable software managers and engineers to determine the right criteria of allocating spectrums to particular regions (Partridge 2011: 66-67). Fina lly, a world of wireless communication would need authoritative controls and licensing to control and reduce the challenges associated with how radios connect with each other (Porcino and Hirt 2003). It would also provide control to the nature with which radios communicate with protocols. Recommendations and the right way forward The assessment and evaluation into the world of software technologies could not have been complete without the provision of recommendations with regard to how the perceived world of wireless communications would be realized. Importantly, the recommendations cover the things that should be undertaken with respect to the key elements that were discussed in the article. This includes but not limited to the control of radio behavior, the right channels to follow when approving the right spectrums, and providing enough information regarding the use of software radios to enable users and authorities in the communication industry to make informed decisions (Partridge 2011: 68). Outlined in the recommendations are the need for research and development, funding from government agencies, and the need to understand the right control measures for controlling bandwidth and estimating the best protocols to be used. Finally yet important, it is important to acknowledge the fact that, indeed wireles s networks hold a vital place in the future of the communication industry. WiFi and Bluetooth In contemporary communications, Personal Digital Assistants and Mobile Telephony manufacturers are making huge sales just from the mention that their devices support WiFi and Bluetooth communications. Irrespective of the performance power of the mentioned features, the PDAs and Bluetooth Devices are still preferred by users. Another important characteristic of WiFi and Bluetooth applets is that they can be installed in a range of communication devices and radios. WiFi and Bluetooth communication applets have no regional boundaries due to their automatic connections and compatibility, and, therefore, they can be used universally and wherever irrespective of a change in data communication protocols. Importantly, these technologies are not yet fully discovered meaning that with the right innovations and technological platforms, newer versions of Bluetooth and WiFi Chipsets will continue being produced thereby assisting in the realization of the perceived world of wireless communications . Undoubtedly, protocols such as WiFi and Bluetooth will form the basis for radio applets by 2020. Such protocols are compatible with several other data-communication protocols and perhaps boosting their universality. Majority of such communication connections happen automatically without involving action from the user. Similarly, future radios would utilize limitless bandwidths depending on the type of communication and thus, protocols such as WiFi and Bluetooth communications are capable of scanning for unused spectrums thereby enabling the radio applets to increase their performance. This can be attributed to the fact that protocols such as WiFi and Bluetooth support millions of frequencies, media-protocols, and coding depending on the processing power of the device. With regard to performance, radios having a combination of WiFi + Bluetooth module combination are have proven to show enhanced performance and it turn, transforming communications into a new level (Rappaport, 2008). The issue of spectrum use and radio licensing regulations is another area that must be considered during the design of software. According to Partridge (2011: 66), software radios have the potential to change the spectrum thereby unsettling some of the existing regulations and spectrum licensors. As such, the right radios should manufactured using protocols that do not interfere with the approved or authorized spectrums. However, the use of WiFi and Bluetooth modules into the manufacture of radios would enable managers to control the manner with which radios connect to approve spectrums because protocol managers can easily validate the legality of radios over WiFi or Bluetooth connections. This is an essential factor in the future of wireless communications due to the need to obtain authorization and security of communication being communicated over wireless protocols. Finally, protocols such as WiFi and Bluetooth can be defined based on different protocol management infrastructures and policy languages thereby facilitating configuration and reconfiguration (p. 67). An exploration of Two Key Points Realization of a World of Software Radios Indeed, the explosive and exponential growth of wireless infrastructures coupled with the development wireless software systems technologies and paradigm shift from hardware to software does indicate a bright future for wireless networks. It is undoubted that the future world of communications would be controlled by software radios. Therefore, the transition from fixed hardware to more flexible radios holds a world of untapped wireless opportunities necessary for the exploitation of the radio spectrum to deliver data in the fastest and most reliably way (Kripalani, 2002). With these factors in mind, the dream of having a world connected by software radios is yet to be realized. Issues to be addressed include the need to identify the opportunities that lie ahead and implement policy decisions and infrastructure to enable us in achieving these objectives (Kripalani, 2002). It is estimated that by the year 2020, software radios would be the standard technologies in many commercial and military communication devices (Partridge 2011: 63). Ensuring the communication applets are fitted with the right radios with compatible communication protocols is one of the major issues that need to be addressed. It begins with the need to understand the necessity of software radios in the realization of a world of wireless communications. This entails the need of finding the right formula for mixing programmable hardware and software to that are necessary in the provision of support to high-performance signals for radios. This will give way to the development, understanding, and manufacture of software radios, and the associated protocol securities. Then consideration should be placed in the study and exploitation of approvable spectrums and regulatory concerns within particular regions. This is an extensive exercise that requires an examination of radio behavior, under taking comprehensive research to provide insights in the usage radio spectrums in specific geographical regions, and as well, to determine the current situation of the communication sector as far as wireless communication is concerned. Findings from the research should be incorporated in the design and manufacture of software radios to ensure that they adhere to particular communication standards and to develop them to adhere to authoritative rules and regulations governing wireless communications. (Partridge 2011: 66-67). Since the world of software radios is yet to be realized, it is imperative that authoritative and licensing controls be enacted to provide a framework with which radio communications will be managed as they communicate across protocols. The Right Way forward and Recommendations Given that the article talks of the future world of wireless communications, I believe that that the provided recommendations are imperative in the realization of the projected world. Currently, wireless frameworks control a substantial percentage of the overall level of communications, and it is a force to reckon with in the future (Partridge 2011: 68). However, knowing what is needed forms part of the solution but the realization of a world of wireless communication is far from being realized. It is upon the stakeholders from the engineering sector, manufacturing sector, policy makers, and consumers to implement the other measures that have been identified as being significant for the realization of this dream. For instance, the first step entails the understanding of the need for software radios and wireless communication chipsets in the world of wireless communications (Partridge 2011: 63). Therefore, considerations should be placed in understanding the nature of radio behavior, their performance in available spectrums, the current situation of the spectrum field, the type of research that needs to be done, and making decisions and policies that would lead into the realization of the dream of future wireless communication (Partridge 2011: 68). Supportive measures with regard to the right type of languages to be used in the description of radio behaviors and communication protocols should be sought from relevant authorities. The standards and regulations for protocols should be universal to ensure that communications among protocols can be controlled using a single regulatory framework. Equally important is the field of research and development into wireless technologies (Porcino, and Hirt, 2003). For instance, research is needed right from the discovery of the need for high performance wireless radios to the using the right infrastructure to manufacture the radios, and up to the determination of the right spectrums, protocols, and operating regulations. Frameworks and resources such as the Shared Spectrum are readily available to enable researchers find solutions to issues that might arise during the implementation of objectives and goals (Partridge 2011: 68). Administrative authorities such as governmental agencies can al so provide research assistance to strengthen the extent of information available to implementers and stakeholders in the communications industry. I believe that with the application of the right policy measures and the availability of the right technologies, the future of wireless communications would be realized by the year 2020. Reflective Review Judging from the nature of the information contained in the article and what I have produced herein, it evident that I have agreed with the sentiments expressed in the article, and I believe that it is possible to realize a world of wireless communications by the year 2020. This would be possible, if and only if, we get the right understanding of what is required, and implement the best measures based our analysis. The fastest growing section of the communication industry, by any measure, is undoubtedly wireless communications. Over the past decade, the wireless communications industry has experienced sustained and rapid growth in paging, cellular, and cordless connections (Porcino, and Hirt, 2003). This communication medium has captured the imagination of the public and as well, caught media attention given its ubiquity of service and the ease of connection as we enter the a new communications era. The advancement in technology has impact of transforming the manner with which this m edium is being utilized. Nonetheless, the dream of realizing a future with wireless communication might not come true if we fail to understand the nature of the right technologies that are essential in unlocking this potential. Technological infrastructure and innovations is the most important thing that determines the rate of development in the wireless telecommunication industry. Again, judging from the progress that has been evidenced from mid 1990s in relation to current situation in the communication field, it evident that wireless communications would play a major role in the next 10 years (Haykin and Moher, 2005). Drawing from the provided examples in the article, obtaining the right mixture of hardware and software components would be imperative in the manufacture of future radios. I also believe that the performance of radio chipsets and other wireless applications components will be hugely important during the manufacture of radios. Since the world of wireless communications is technologically dependent, and that technology is evolving at an increasing rate, I agree that extensive research and development should be undertaken to boost the discovery of issues related to improvement the wireless communications. Government is also important in the development of regulations and standard protocols to govern the manner with which devices communicate with each other. This is necessary to prevent the privacy of messages being communicated across devices and s well to prevent, the disturbance of particular frequencies. However, I am not sure with some of the factors discussed in the article and the practicability of their applications. Majority of users might not understand the whole hype associated with radio technologies and radio chipsets thus making less sense to them. I would suggest that educative measures be undertaken to enhance understanding among the users. Second, majority of stakeholders seem to suffer from myopia and therefore, many are polished with insufficient details regarding the entire issues of radio protocols and radio technologies (Haykin and Moher, 2005). Without cooperation and understanding, the dream of a future controlled by wireless communications will be far from being realized. Reference List Haykin, S. and Moher, M. 2005, Modern Wireless Communications, New York: Prentice Hall Kripalani, A.T. 2002, Realizing the Wireless Future for Universal Personal Communications. Whippany, NJ: AT T Bell Lab Partridge, C. 2011, Realizing the Future of Wireless Data Communications,† Communications of the ACM, Vol.54 No.9. Porcino, D. and Hirt, W. 2003, â€Å"Ultra-Wideband Radio Technology: Potential and Challenges ahead,† IEEE Communication Mag., Vol. 41, pp. 66-74 Rappaport, T. S. 2008, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, 4th ed. Prentice Hall

Friday, December 20, 2019

Essay on Main Characters in Homers The Iliad, Achilles...

Two of the main characters in Homeramp;#8217;s The Iliad, Achilles and Hector, compare very differently in many ways. Although they were both war heroes, they came from different sides of the battle and fought each other under different beliefs. These two brave warriors fought to the death in Book 22, where Hector eventually lost to Achilles. Even though Hector lost the fight, the war still raged on, even less merciful than before. These two warriors were similar in a few ways, but mostly very different. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;These two warriors were similar in some ways. The most obvious were that they were both fighting in the same war and that they were both male warriors. They were also very renowned fighters for their†¦show more content†¦Hector was not fighting back to amp;#8220;authorize; the death, but only to defend his and his peopleamp;#8217;s honor. Like this difference, Achilles and Hector also differed in the fact that Achilles was a lot more brutal and cruel than Hector. Achilles had a strong mindset, and could not be amp;#8220;won over.; He has no forgiveness for even Hector told him with his this last dying breath: amp;#8220;I see you now for what you are...iron...your heart is.; Hector differed from this because he did not seem quite as brutal or violent as Achilles, but he was not a sweet, innocent man, either. Hector was also a brutal killer, for he killed Patroclus. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The two warrioramp;#8217;s strengths and weaknesses differ greatly as well. Achilles weaknesses consisted of friendship that blinded him, extreme brutality, and no forgiveness. Although he won the fight, his attitude eventually brought an end to him. If it were not for his strong friendship that he tried to avenge, he would not have came back to the war and ended up dying prematurely. Hectoramp;#8217;s weaknesses consisted mainly of his mortality, his bravery and his not-so-quick thinking. If he were not so brave, and was smarter, he would not have come out to fight in the first place. He could have stayed behind the palace walls and spared his own life. Achilles had the primary strength of being almost immortal, which basically helped him win theShow MoreRelatedTroy vs. the Iliad Essay1398 Words   |  6 PagesOver the thousands of years that the epic story the Iliad has survived, there has no doubt been some form of alteration to Homers original. Last May , Wolfgang Petersen directed a movie based on the Iliad. This movie, Troy, has proven to be a very loose adaptation of Homers original, as are almost all stories that are made into movies, unfortunately. With its timeless storyline, amazing scenery, gorgeous actors/actresses and most of all, its reported two hundred million dollar budget, it is easyRead More Troy vs. The Iliad Essays1385 Words   |  6 PagesTroy vs. The Iliad Over the thousands of years that the epic story the Iliad has survived, there has no doubt been some form of alteration to Homer’s original. Last May, Wolfgang Petersen directed a movie based on the Iliad. This movie, Troy, has proven to be a very loose adaptation of Homer’s original, as are almost all stories that are made into movies, unfortunately. With its timeless storyline, amazing scenery, gorgeous actors/actresses and most of all, its reported two hundred millionRead MoreEssay on A Review of the Movie Troy808 Words   |  4 Pagesoffice hit. Troy, based on the Iliad, has proven to be a very loose adaptation of Homers classic and one cannot help noticing the major differences between the book and the movie. One of the most noticeable differences between the book and the movie is the absence of the Gods. In Homers Iliad, the Gods played a major part in the Trojan War. Though the viewers are made aware that the characters believe in the Gods, the only God we see in the movie is Thetis, Achilles mother. The omission of theRead MoreThe Era Of Homer By Homer911 Words   |  4 Pagessomewhere around 8th century BC and was possibly one of the first literate authors. Other theories suggest that he only spoke his epics and they were put into writing by others. Homer’s stories show us the first glimpse of documented information of Greek myth and religion. Most important was the creation of Homer’s writing style named the Homeric epic. He was the first author to write epics and his writing style held strongly as the first major literature of its type in western civilization.Read MoreHector and Achilles as Classic Heroes of Homers Iliad Essay983 Words   |  4 Pages Hector and Achilles as Classic Heroes of Homers Iliad nbsp; nbsp; nbsp; Literary heroes have been important to stories and poems throughout history. Each author develops his hero through a unique writing style, combining conscious use of detail, diction, tone and other narrative techniques to outline a heros personality. Homer, in his epic poem The Iliad, develops two classic heroes who are distinctly different at first glance, but upon closer inspection are very similar inRead MoreAn Essay on the Illiad868 Words   |  4 Pagesa ‘student of his culture’ and thus both The Iliad and The Odyssey are directed sources of their own period. Select any one episode or scene from either of the poems as one that you feel is most memorable. What does it tell about Homeric culture? A writer is a reflection of his age. A work of art is considered a mirror of the customs, culture, and concepts of the age to which it belongs. Homer’s writings are a true representation of this. His Iliad and Odyssey both reflect the old Greek cultureRead MoreThe Importance of Woman in the Iliad684 Words   |  3 PagesHomers Iliad is the product of a society in which men played the dominant role. Throughout history, women have been viewed as playing small roles in society. The role of women in the Iliad is very small and overshadowed by the main story of Achilles and the Trojan War. The shadow that is cast over the women in the Iliad can often block readers from seeing the important role that they play in this classic Epic Poem. Most readers view the women of the Iliad as simply war prizes but without them thereRead MoreThe Iliad Character Analysis749 Words   |  3 Pages Throughout Homer’s epic poem, â€Å"The Iliad,† the Trojans and the Greeks fight a vio lent war. Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite engage in a contest to know who the fairest Pantheon goddess is. Zeus, the king of Gods, chooses Paris, â€Å"a man who [keeps] his word† (Friedman), to elect the most beautiful goddess, but Aphrodite bribes him by saying â€Å"Helen of Sparta, the most beautiful woman in the world will fall in love with you†(Friedman 3). Seduced by the goddess of love’s offer, Paris immediately declaresRead MoreExamples Of Glory And Glory In The Iliad1054 Words   |  5 PagesHaley Vinson English 271 December 4, 2017 Glory and Honor in Homer’s Iliad Thesis: Great honor comes with great responsibility. Glory should come with wisdom. Homer presents this idea in various ways. This theme is woven through The Iliad showing the foundation of dignified heroes and self-glorification. Introduction: I. Honor and glory A. Heroic actions B. God-like glory II. Social Status A. Greek Society B. Recognition and influences III. Mortality and immortality A. Glory afterRead MoreThe Iliad Essay1153 Words   |  5 PagesHomer’s epic The Iliad, is a great tale of war and glory. It takes place during the last year of the ten year Greek-Trojan war. The Greeks have been fighting with the Trojans for quite some time, and just when peace seemed like a possibility, the youngest prince of Troy, Paris, acts out selfishly and steals the beautiful wife of Menelaus, Helen. This instigates the fighting again. Throughout The Iliad, Homer tells of two heroes, both similar, but also very different in their character; the great